The Yalkut Shimoni uses an interesting story to explain the Mitzvah to “Remember what Amalek did you”; One upon a time there was a king who planted a vineyard, placed a vicious guard dog inside a fence. He warned everyone that the dog would attack anyone who would climb the fence. The prince, the king’s own son, ignored his father’s warning and was, exactly as the king foretold, attacked by the dog.
Whenever the king observed that his son was beginning to slip, he would take him to the vineyard and say, Remember what happened when you ignored my warnings?”
So too, whenever Israel sins, God reminds them what happened when they asked, “Is God in our midst or not?” and they were attacked by Amalek.
This Midrash explains that the sin that made them vulnerable to Amalek’s attack was their questioning God’s presence in their midst so soon after the Exodus, the Splitting of the Red Sea, Manna, the Miracle at Marah and more.
The Midrash also explains that Amalek’s attack in Rephidim reflected that “Rafu yideihem min HaTorah” their hands were weak in Torah study.
I believe that the Midrash is not offering two separate reasons for Amalek’s attack. The two are the same. They only were able to ask “Is God in our midst or not?” even while living on God’s miracles is because their hands were ‘weak in Torah study”.
Even while living on God’s bread, Manna, even while existing within the protection of God’s clouds, even while drinking the miraculously sweetened water of Marah, they could not maintain their awareness of God’s Presence without a means to use that awareness. They could not remember God’s constant presence and involvement without Torah.
That is why Esther and Mordechai turned every part of the Purim miracle into a part of Torah, so that each of the holiday’s mitzvot would be a way to reify their understanding that God was clearly in their midst.
And There’s more:
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